21,875 Random Digits

Prior to the publication of the landmark report A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates by the RAND Corporation in The Free Press in 1955, a sneak preview of 21,875 digits were serialized in the Journal of the American Statistical Association between 1952 and 1954. While RAND registered the copyright to A Million Random Digits and timely renewed in 1983, this renewal was too late to apply to the work published in JASA. No registration was filed for the digits first published in JASA. Consequently, although RAND continues to assert exclusive rights to this table, these 21,875 digits are certainly in the public domain. The left-hand tables below are the digits as they appeared in JASA; the right-hand table are the corresponding digits as they appeared in the book, with dashes in place of digits not published in advance. The ordering and selection of the punched cards differs from the ultimate publication in 1955. While A Million Random Digits was printed by Cardatype and reproduced by photo-offset, the digits in the journal were apparently typed by hand! There were several typos, identified in bold below.

(1952) Random Digits (1-6000), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47:260, 710-714, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1952.10483450

“Below are the first 6000 of a series of random digits which will be published as space permits, thus providing frequent fresh supplies. The digits are from A Million Random Digits to be published by The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, through whose courtesy they are published here.”

(1953) Random Digits (6001-6100) [sic], Journal of the American Statistical Association, 48:261, 167-167, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1953.10483465

(This reference actually contains digits 6001-6500.)

(1953) Random Digits (6501-6875), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 48:262, 383-383, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1953.10483480

(1953) Random Digits (6876-8125), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 48:263, 672-672, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1953.10483499

(1953) Random Digits (9001-13,750) [sic], Journal of the American Statistical Association, 48:264, 931-934, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1953.10501210

(This reference actually contains digits 8126-12875.)

(1954) Random Digits (12,876-15,125), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49:265, 206-207, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1954.10501227

(1954) Random Digits (15,126-17,375), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49:266, 410-411, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1954.10483511

(1954) Random Digits (17,376-20,875), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49:267, 682-684, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1954.10483529

(1954) Random Digits (20,876-21,875), Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49:268, 928-928, DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1954.10501247

“With this issue, the Journal will discontinue publication of random digits. The complete set from which these have been taken is now being published for The Rand Comporation by The Free Press (Glencoe, Illinois) under the title A Million Random Digits.”